New laws allow the European Union to recall vehicles found to have breached emissions standards.
If a car is found to be non-compliant, the European Commission – the EU's independent executive arm – can revoke that model's certifications, as well as issuing a €30,000 (AU$48,600) fine per vehicle, according to news agency Reuters.
The new laws, which came into effect this week, are designed to avoid another 'Dieselgate' scandal, in which Volkswagen Group brands were found to have used software to cheat emissions tests. Other car brands were found to have implemented similar cheats.
Vehicles known to have breached safety regulations can also be recalled under the new powers, which span across 27 countries within the European Union.
Emissions testing has previously been the purview of each individual country, but the European Commission says it has invested in two new vehicle evaluation labs to ensure compliance.
In 2015, Volkswagen Group admitted to using software to cheat emissions tests, and is estimated to have paid almost $47 billion in fines, compensation, and vehicle buy-backs since the 'Dieselgate' saga began.