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The crankshaft converts the up and down motion of the pistons into a rotary motion. It provides the turning motion for the wheels. It works much like the pedals of a bicycle, converting up-down motion into rotational motion. The crankshaft is usually either alloy steel or cast iron. The crankshaft is connected to the pistons by the connecting-rods.
The configuration and number of pistons in relation to each other and the crank leads to straight, V or flat engines. The same basic engine block can be used with different crankshafts, however, to alter the firing order; for instance, the 90 degree V6 engine configuration, usually derived by using six cylinders of a V8 engine with what is basically a shortened version of the V8 crankshaft, produces an engine with an inherent pulsation in the power flow due to the “missing” two cylinders, often reduced by use of balance shafts. The same engine, however, can be made to provide evenly spaced power pulses by using a crankshaft with an individual crank throw for each cylinder, spaced so that the pistons are actually phased 60 degrees apart, some parts of the shaft do not move up and down; they rotate in the stationary main bearings. These parts are known as journals. There are usually three journals in a four cylinder engine.