Clocking 165.1km/h within the confines of the New Orleans Convention Centre, the all-electric sports sedan was piloted by Dublin-born racing driver Leh Keen.
After achieving the record, Mr Keen said: “The sensation of speed indoors, even in such a big space, is enormous.”
“The surface is so unpredictable, so slick, that you have to have complete trust in your car,” he added.
The previous record was held by racing driver Tanner Foust in his stripped-out, all-wheel-drive Ford Fiesta rallycross car, which achieved a speed of 138.4km/h back in 2013.
The 2021 Porsche Taycan Turbo S develops 560kW from its two axle-mounted electric motors, allowing it to accelerate from zero to 100km/h in a claimed 2.8 seconds – though real-world testing has indicated it could be even quicker.
Energy is drawn from a 93.4kWh battery pack, permitting a range on Europe's WLTP test cycle of 412km.
Pricing in Australia for the Turbo S starts from $338,500 before on-road costs, while the entry-level 4S variant is priced from $190,000.