According to BBC News, the Russian Government claims the 'medical' bans have been introduced to reduce road trauma.
As well as transsexual and transgender people, those with so-called 'mental disorders' such as fetishism, exhibitionism and voyeurism, as well as gambling addicts or kleptomaniacs, have also been deemed ineligible for a licence.
The move has been labelled discriminatory by Russian psychiatrists and human rights lawyers.
The Association of Russian Lawyers for Human Rights told the BBC's Russian Service it would be taking the issue up with international human rights organisations as well as the Russian Constitutional Court.
The country's Professional Driver Union has thrown its support behind the new laws, however, with spokesperson Alexander Kotov telling the BBC he believes the move is "justified".
"We have too many deaths on the road, and I believe toughening medical requirements for applicants is fully justified."
He went on to say that restrictions shouldn't be so harsh for non-professional drivers, however.