The Lotus Exige called 'Nemesis' is owned by Dale Vince, the founder of utility company Ecotricity, but was driven by 21-year-old former kart racer Nick Ponting.
Don Wales, the grandson of speed legend Sir Malcolm Campbell, held the previous electric car speed record, of 220km/h, driving a Bluebird Electric in 2000.
The crew spent more than $1.1 million modifying the Lotus to run on a battery that is charged using electricity generated by wind turbines.
Designed by Formula One engineers, the Nemesis can accelerate from 0-160km/h in just 8.5 seconds and has a range of up to 241km between charges.
Vince told reporters: “We built the Nemesis to smash the stereotype of electric cars as something Noddy would drive.
“It’s the first electric supercar built in Britain. I’m very proud.”